Residential roofing (roofing on houses) in the north east Ohio area, consists mostly of asphalt shingle style roofing. While there are a variety of other types of roofs used on houses, most are of the asphalt shingle type.
With that being said, there is much more than just shingles that make up the roofing of your house. The roofing materials begin with felt paper, that is stapled or nailed using "cap-nails" ( nails with a plastic washer or flange) to the entire plywood, or 1x8 wood planks (on older houses) that makes up the structural roof deck of your house.
At the bottom 3' of the roof deck, Cleveland Ohio Roofing will use Ice guard, or "Ice and Water Shield" along the eaves and in the valleys. Ice and water is a self-adhering rubberized asphalt roof roll roofing material. It's purpose is to provide an extra layer of protection against leaks on your roof where it is most prone to leaks during the winter months. When there is snow on the roof, the snow can begin to melt from any residual heat emanating from the house. The water from the melting snow will drip down to the eaves of the roof, and freeze again because the eaves are colder than the rest of the roof and create ice dams. The weight of the ice dams can push and melting bottom ice up and under shingles , and into your house. Ice and Water shield will prevent this from happening in most cases. Houses with steep roofs combined with larger overhangs will get two rows of ice-guard installed of one. After the roof deck is covered in felt paper and ice and water shield, drip edge is then installed. Drip edge is made of galvanized steel or aluminum and is nailed to the entire perimeter of the roof deck edges along eaves, up gables and over fascia. Drip edge also serves to hold the sheet metal coil fascia and gutter board covers in place, along the top edge.
If needed, before installing the felt paper, vent channels can be cut from the roof deck, if they do not exist currently. Ridge vents channels are cut up to 1" to 1-1/2" on wither side of the ridge boards, all along the length of the house. Box vents are cut typically in the rear sections of the roof deck in square or rectangular holes. If your house does not have an overhang with no ability to create an intake vent in the soffit, alternative intake vent can be used, your gutter board can be replaced with a vent-able "inhaler" gutter board. There are drip edges made with venting , or shingle vents can be used. For the ridge or box vents to work effectively, an intake vent must be used.
In addition to ridge and soffit vents, and box vents, there are other options available like electric venting fans (which can be solar powered) available like electric venting fans (which can be solar powered) louvered gable vents, and turbines. Each system is effective when installed properly, but the most common in the northeast Ohio area is the ridge vent / soffit vent combinations. The soffit / Ridge vent comp is affordable, looks good , no large protrusions, and is very effective. Sometimes, kitchen and bath vents are vented through the roof, if the house necessitates this. These vents also must be properly sealed to prevents water infiltration and proper venting of bathroom steam, moisture and and stove exhaust. Finished attics can make it challenging to vent, and attic insulation helps. Venting calculators made by vent manufactures are available to determine what vents works best for your home and how many.
After felt and ice and drip edge, a starter course of shingles or "starter strip" is used along the bottom at the eaves, as a 3rd layer of protection, and, in same cases, along the gable ends. If required, a metal valley flashing is nailed into the valleys of the roof.
Caulk lines are then snapped on the roof to ensure an even, level and symmetrical shingle installation and shingles are then installed by nailing each shingle in one row through middle, than a second row through 2 layers, over the entire roof surface, according to the manufacturer's recommendations of the shingles brand and type that was chosen by the homeowner. Cap shingles are used on top of the ridge and hips.
Step flashing is installed where roof surfaces intersect adjoining vertical wall and on sides of chimney and masonry. Apron flashing goes on where the horizontal part of the roof intersects a vertical wall land counter flashing covers step flashing on sides of the chimneys or brick walls.
Plumbing vent stacks are sealed with a proprietary "pipe boot" and "shingled" in, then nailed and caulked to prevent leakage around pipe penetrations.
Asphalt shingles can come in a variety of styles and types. The most common in NE-Ohio (Cleveland Ohio) is the architectural / also known as dimensional shingle. They are cost-effective, not complicated to install, and have a great appearance. They come in 30 year, and 40 year. Architectural shingles are quickly replacing 3-tab style shingles as Ohio's standard. They look better, last longer, and are cost effective. The only draw back to dimensional to 3-tab , is they do not lend themselves to layovers as easily as 3-tab, and in most cases, will need to be torn off to be replaces – not shingled over like 3-tabs were able to.
GAF makes : "Luxury Sienna", (diamond shaped) , "Monaco" looks like Spanish tile, "Grand Sequoia" to look like wood shakes, " Grand canyon" also looks like shakes, "Grand Slate" to look like slate, "Camelot" – for an antique look , " Country Mansion" also looks like a type of slate.
Certainteed makes: "Centennial Slate", "Grand Manor"," Carriage House", "Presidential Shake", "Landmark TL",
IKO makes "Crown Slate" , "Armour Shake", "Royal Estate", and "Cambridge".
Because of safety issues, roofs tend to be more neglected than other areas of the house / home. Roofs need to be maintained, even when newer and throughout it's life span. There are areas of roofs than can break down and leak sooner rather than later. Typically we inspect all caulking areas, flashing, chimneys, penetrations, pipe boots, gutters , satellite dishes, antennas, valleys. There are all areas need regular maintenance. Sometime shingles can lose their seals over time and can be re-sealed. Moss and mildew can degrade shingles and should be cleaned off. A 12-point inspection will typically locate 95% of potential problems. It is good to check your roof before winter, to make sure it is equipped to keep you dry during the months that are hardest on your roof and become difficult to repair. And, after winter, to see how your roof components and gutters, held up to the tough Ohio cold, snow, and ice and thermal shock of sun during the day.
Sometimes when a roof has had a leak for some time, it will soften the deck structure and that can be felt when walking on the roof. This is a sign of wet, soaked and probably rotten plywood under the shingles. This must be torn out and replaced to prevent mold, and further rot in the future. Usually this is only part of the roof, but in some severe cases, in can be the entire roof that needs the deck replaced.
The sun is a factor of deteriorating roofs and will breakdown the shingles over time. A well vented roof system will prolonge this. High winds do not help either, and can loosen shingle edges, flashing, antenaes and other joints on the roof. Shingle seals can get worn out over time and water can back up into the house when there is snow and ice sitting on the roof. Having a steeper roof will help, but these seals can be repaired if not extensive by using a sealent or by replacing individual shingles.
Gutters are a very critical line of defense for the entire house and foundation. Having clogged, missing, damaged gutters can allow water to wreak havoc on a house, when the cost is minor to get them fixed compared to the long-term damage that could result from these problems.
Gutters can be inspected and repaired if needed, or replaced in serious situations. Most residential gutters are 5" "ogee" style consisting of the gutter trough, spikes & ferrules, or gutter hangers, exterior or hidden. Outlets, elbows, downspouts, corners / miters. Gutters can be damaged and pull away from the gutter board during harsh winters or storms. They can get full of debris from trees and clogs. Other types of gutters are box gutters, 6" ogee, flange back and built-in wood utters. Outlet baskets can prevent downspout clogs, by preventing debris from entering downspouts. Gutter covers can also prevent downspout and gutter clogs. Covers are screens, or sheet metal or gutter helmet, foam or brush inserts, all can be effective against clogs. But, some are better than others for each unique environment, leaf defier, leaf relief, are a couple brand names. Downspouts can drain directly into drain tile and sewer or spout out in to yard via trough or flexible pipes.
Brick, masonry or metal chimneys can take a beating from the sun, wind, rain, hail, and debris over time and should be inspected every other year. Roof leaks are often found to be chimney flashing, loose or missing mortar, cracked, broken chimney, crowns and broken chimney caps, broken / cracked bricks. Much of this can be prevented from small regular repairs.
Chimney caps keep rain and snow and critters from entering your chimney. They come in a variety of shapes and styles and can look great as well. And add to your home's appearance, curb appeal and value.
Metal panels, metal standing seam, wood shake, plastic shake, metal shake, metal tile, tile, clay tile, Spanish tile, metal shingles, flat roof (see commercial) and slate, Many of these roof can last over 50 years when maintained properly.